Exercises for the development of memory in younger schoolchildren
Sometimes parents face a situation when their child for a long time cannot remember a simple, one would think, poem, needed to learn for school, and some kind of awkward song, heard once – remembers instantly. How can one explain such “selective” memorization, can a memory be improved and developed? How to do it? These and many other issues are of concern to parents, and the interest in this topic is by no means idle: a good memory is a key to the successful study. Fortunately, this human resource lends itself to training. According to psychologists, the main thing is to choose the right method.
What are the types of memory?
In order to choose the appropriate exercises for the development of memory, it is worthwhile to understand how the process of memorization takes place. For this, let us turn to the generally accepted classification of memory.
According to duration:
- short-term (information is easily remembered, but it is also easy to forget);
- long-term (data is stored in memory for a long time);
- operative (information is held for some time).
According to type:
- auditory (better remembered something that is heard);
- visual (visual patterns are more easily memorized);
- motor (everything related to movement – remembers the body);
- figurative (emotional, associative);
According to the degree of effort:
- involuntary (no effort is necessary to remember no matter what);
- voluntary (you need to try to remember the event or object);
- direct (remembered mechanically, thinking is not “turned on”);
- indirect (requires the construction of a logical chain, the comprehension of data).
By the way, the kids have a well developed mechanical memory, so experts recommend starting studying foreign languages before school.How does human memory work? There are three stages:
- information data storage;
- extraction (reproduction) of data.
Three “whales” of good memory
When starting a lesson with a child, pay attention to three “whales” or three “laws” on which memorization is built:
- The first – try to get a vivid impression of what is remembered (for this – you need to focus and to be attentive).
- The second is a repetition.
- The third is an association.
How to develop long-term memory?
Human memory is subjective enough, because after each subsequent reproduction of information, memories are distorted.
The task of parents is to develop and train the child’s long-term memory. In order to do this, you need:
- Teach your child the skill to compare objects of memorization, to find similarities and differences in them (children’s magazines with colorful pictures are suitable for training, tables, in which it is proposed to find either identical objects, or to find hardly noticeable differences);
- Practice retelling by the child of any information he has received-a cartoon watched, a story read, an experience he has experienced (trains memory, develops speech, allows to correctly formulate sentences);
- Learn poems, tongue twisters, solve crossword puzzles;
- Gradually move on to memorizing prose (here you can offer one interesting exercise). For example, read a small extract of the text in the journal, cut out this fragment. Then cut it into pieces, give the child one piece and propose on it to restore the entire plot.
Training aural memory
The more we train the memory, the more we can remember. So, we proceed to the exercises on development of auditory memory in younger schoolchildren. Classes can be conducted individually or in a group.
- Add your own
This exercise is well practiced by the group. Here the principle is this. The adult offers a simple plot, for example, a trip or a way to the store. Starts like this: “I put in my suitcase (bag) a book.” The child should repeat this sentence from the beginning and to add something on his own. For example: “I put in a suitcase (bag) a book and pencils”. The second participant again repeats everything (the phrase is longer) and adds his own.
- Remember the rhythm
With a pencil or a stick, you tap on the table at a certain rhythm and ask the child to repeat it. You need to start with simple sounds, as the pupil copes, the rhythm can be complicated.
- Singing songs
For the development of auditory memory, this simple technique, such as singing songs, for example, with the voices of familiar cartoon characters, helps effectively. In order to represent someone else’s voice, the child will have to recall his timbre, volume, intonation and rhythm.
- Looking for a pair
Training consists of two stages. At the first stage you read a couple of words. For example: a flower – a vase, a school – a pupil, a hare – a forest, a river – a beach. At the second stage you name one word from the read pair and suggest that the child should name the second. If your pupil is coping with the task, then it’s all right with both memory and logic.
- We play in the association
This is a more difficult exercise, although your child will definitely like it. Prepare several cards, which depict objects, animals. For example, a fox, a sweater, a sun, a bus. Lay out the cards in front of the child. Set a task: you name the words, and the child selects a picture for them. Words can be: forest, clothes, weather, and garage.
In order to develop this type of memory, you can apply such exercises:
- Colorful images
It will take from three to five pictures of different colors. Show them to the child in a certain sequence and ask them to repeat. Check the correctness.
- Geometric figures
This exercise trains photographic memory well. Draw a cartoon character on the sheet in the form of geometric shapes. As a rule, it’s a robot or an astronaut / alien. Geometric figures should be no more than four. Show the child a pattern for 30 seconds so that he can study it in detail. Then ask to portray what is remembered. You can prepare three drawings in advance. On each subsequent picture you change little some detail. When verifying the task, note how accurately it is performed.
- Describe the picture
It is necessary to prepare up to five variants of drawings, on which several objects are depicted. The shape and color are different. Give the child a chance to study the image for 10 seconds, and then let him close his eyes and describe in detail what he remembered. Gradually, the task can be complicated by increasing the number of objects in the drawing.
Developing associative memory
The development of associative memory among pupils of junior school is a very effective method. In order to train the formation of associations, there is a whole science – mnemonics. Exercises for the development of associations include schemes, tables and pairs of words that are not related in meaning. In occasion of the last – name pair words, different on sense and give the task to the child to think up history with the use of these words. A scheme, a table with pictures will teach children to make stories; perform some manipulation in a certain sequence, for example, to dress. Mnemonics help to increase vocabulary, quickly memorize the text. They say that it is better to remember the poem if you “see” it.
How to improve a pupil’s memory?
If you notice that your pupil is not attentive, badly remembers what he is told at school and at home, he cannot concentrate, of course, you should not tolerate this. You need to make an effort, and your child will be better at learning, becoming more collected and generally more successful. And there are several simple ways for this.
- Read good literature
Of course, it is difficult to tear off a modern child from correspondence in social networks, watching cartoons, computer games. But for loving parents, nothing is impossible. Convince your child, and, on a personal example, what to read is not only useful, but also fashionable. Give him an e-book so that he can read at any opportunity. Find good literature for him.
- Develop a new skill
Mastering new skills train memory very well. If your child does not go in for sports and does not attend “interest group” classes, tell him that all this exists and is available for him. If he is already engaged in something, offer to learn a new sport or attend a music school, at the same time find out what interests your child most of all.
- Develop vocabulary
Not only reading books would help for this. You can arrange a game at home: every day learn a new word. Familiarize the child with complex words, the Internet will help to interpret them. It will be interesting and useful for parents as well.
- Learn by heart
Learn with your child’s poem set in the school. Tell him about your poetic preferences, about how you in your childhood memorized poems.
- Memorize numbers
The memorization of numbers has a great effect on the development of memory. These can be the dates of birth of relatives and friends, mobile phone numbers. Tell the child how to remember them best. If there are more children in your family, organize a “Who will remember more” competition between them.
- Have a good rest
A healthy sleep is sufficient for a child of primary school age (at least 10 hours in a well-ventilated room), as well as walking in the open air (up to two hours a day) excellently stimulate the work of the brain and, accordingly, have a positive effect on memory. Do not neglect these simple rules.
10 products for the wunderkind
To improve memory, you need to eat right. In the diet of your pupil should necessarily be products, containing the necessary vitamins and minerals. Here are the ten products that will help your child to learn the school subjects for “excellent” marks:
- Fish (preferably marine, contains iodine, phosphorus, Omega-3 fatty acids, which has a beneficial effect on the brain).
- Eggs (contain protein and choline, which helps to focus).
- Garlic (accelerate blood circulation, add to meat dishes).
- Red grapes (antioxidant, protects the body cells from aging and damage).
- Broccoli (just a storehouse of vitamin K, which improves brain function).
- Legumes (contain vitamins B6, B12, folic acid, improve short-term and long-term memory).
- Tomatoes (also a powerful antioxidant).
- Lemon (vitamin C improves memory).
- Walnuts (contain omega-3 fatty acids, protein, lecithin, 5 nuts per day – and the child’s memory will be in excellent condition).
- Honey (glucose positively affects the work of the brain and memory).
Do not forget to give the child to drink enough water, but not soda!
Brain games for improving memory – on IQClub
For the development of memory, not only exercises are used, but also games. IQClub is an Internet service that offers educational games for training memory, attention, reading skills, the child’s thinking. In order to use the services of this Internet portal, you need to:
- register in the system;
- for a child – to pass a test that will interest him.
After that, IQClub specialists will select an individual training program for your kid, basing on an analysis of his strengths and weaknesses.
Games are developed by a team of professionals – the best psychologists, teachers, designers.
Parents can monitor the learning results online. Useful games on the IQClub site is a great simulator for the development of the child’s intellect.
Recommendations for the development of the memory of younger schoolchildren
Memory is given to each of us at birth, but not everyone can use it correctly. The task of parents and teachers is to teach the student the methods of memorization, so that he subsequently uses them unconsciously. The child must understand how to remember the information easily. However, any science will not go on for future use if the pupil has no motivation for studying. In such a situation, the holy duty of parents is to interest the child, and for a good result – to conduct the lessons systematically. During these sessions, educational psychologists recommend that parents should pay attention to the following:
- ensure that the child understands the material that he remembers;
- let the child repeat the text learned the next day;
- When working on memorizing the text, break it into small fragments, but not very small, so that your pupil does not forget what was at the very beginning;
- while memorizing the text, ask the child to say it out loud;
- Motivate the child to memorize, use your imagination: offer only those texts that are of interest to him;
- do not spend more than half an hour with the child, and 15 minutes at first. If you see that the baby is tired – take a break;
- always praise the child for even the smallest successes, encourage him to study.
When dealing with a child, help him carry out assignments, tell him which tactic to memorize is better to apply. Thus, your baby will not just learn to remember, he will perceive information consciously and then it will be permanently preserved in his memory.
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